Rome

ROME S I L EN T BE AU T Y

“And once the storm is over you won’t remember how you made it through, how you managed to survive. You won’t even be sure, in fact, whether the storm is really over. But one thing is certain. When you come out of the storm you won’t be the same person who walked in.” Haruki Murakami, Kafka on the Shore

ROME

Previous pages ST. PETER’S BASILICA Following pages ST. PETER’S SEEN FROM PONTE UMBERTO I PIAZZA DEL POPOLO

Photographs Moreno Maggi Texts Massimo Recalcati Claudio Strinati ROME

15 18 24 TABLE OF CONTENTS Deserted Rome: Memories of Beauty PIETRO SALINI Dissipatio Humani Generis MASSIMO RECALCATI Rome. Belonging to All, and to No One CLAUDIO STRINATI

12 DISCOVER THE MULTIMEDIA CONTENTS DYNAMIC CONTENTS IN AUGMENTED REALITY In addition to extensive photographic documentation dedicated to Rome, during the lockdown, this volume presents contents in augmented reality that offer a montage of videos of its most suggestive places. How to activate augmented reality experiences: 1 | Download the Webuild Group application from your App store. 2 | Select the Augmented Reality tool and aim at the pages with our marker. 3 | Discover exclusive content. Try the marker above to start.

ST. PETER’S SQUARE TERMINI STATION CASTEL SANT ’ANGELO PONTE MILVIO AUDITORIUM PONTE DELLA MUSICA COLOSSEUM IMPERIAL FORA CAMPIDOGLIO ALTARE DELLA PATRIA PIAZZA DELLA MINERVA PIAZZA DI PORTA MAGGIORE PIAZZA DEL POPOLO PINCIO TERRACE PANTHEON TREVI FOUNTAIN QUIRINALE VIA VENETO PIAZZA ESEDRA ARA PACIS ARCH OF TITUS ARC OF CONSTANTINE BASILICA DI SAN GIOVANNI IN LATERANO PIAZZA DI SPAGNA CAMPO DE’ FIORI PIAZZA NAVONA ISOLA TIBERINA SINAGOGA BOCCA DELLA VERITÀ PYRAMID OF CAIUS CESTIUS BATHS OF CARACALLA AURELIAN WALLS EUR SQUARE COLOSSEUM CONGRESS PALACE PIAZZA DELLE NAZIONI UNITE OBELISCO OF MARCONI

15 ROME SILENT BEAUTY During the Covid-19 pandemic, Rome came to a standstill, like many of the major cities around the world. Its public places remained empty, suspended in an indefinite time. Deserted squares, streets, and monuments seemed bare, as if the lack of the human factor made them incomplete, in spite of their unchanged beauty and majesty. The absence of people and the void generated by the lockdown rekindled the debate on themes related to the concept of the livable city, urban design, and mobility. We need to exploit the opportunity for this sweeping change to completely rethink spaces and infrastructures, starting from the needs of commun- ities and a new way of looking at sustainability, from the cities to the outskirts. This book was born out of the desire to size a unique moment in the life of a sleeping city and exalt the very soul of Rome, to document and describe the experience of the void created by the Covid-19 pandemic, and to start thinking about the future that awaits us. The images tell us about a different Rome, one never before seen, where the contours and the geometries of the major works re-emerge in all their beauty clearer than ever before, uncontaminated by the growing anthropization that often, if left unchecked, spoils it. Gazing at monuments that are famous all over the world, but also at the neighborhoods and views that are less well known, means analyzing the relationship between space, community, and infrastructures. The images of an almost rarefied metropolis remind us that the urban fabric, as the sum of physical places, acquires meaning through its use by the people, and becomes functional to the citizens’ well-being. The ancient Romans disseminated urban life to territories where it had never existed before, and they wanted their cities, in every corner of the Empire, to have certain common features. The birth of new conglomerates revealed the desire to use the beauty of the city’s architecture as propaganda for the grandeur of Rome and to celebrate its success. Infrastructures were created at the same time at the service of the people, such as aqueducts, some of which are hundreds of miles long, essential for water supply. Still visible today in many countries, they symbolize progress and development. In short, the “great beauty” lies in the interaction and the stories lived by people in the places where they belong. Based on this idea we can start over again to imagine and plan a network of infrastructures that are better suited to the needs of the twenty-first century, with respect for the historical legacy and the intriguing stratifications of a capital city like Rome. The images in this book tell the story of an empty urban structure. They are also of aesthetic value. But more importantly, they inspire us to work on our future. A long-lasting and solid recovery, during the post-Covid phase, will take place by means of a great infrastructural project that fully takes advantage of our best constructive and creative skills, for a transition toward a different development model whose goal is that of a new type of economic, social, and environmental sustainability. Pietro Salini Chief Executive Officer WEBUILD Deserted Rome: Memories of Beauty A “sleeping” city. A city that comes from the past to give us a new vision of the future. THE IMPERIAL FORA

16 First reaction, an extended panic. And then, but quickly brushed away, incredulity, and then fear again. Now habituation. Resignation? I’d say acquiescence, actually. Guido Morselli, Dissipatio H.G. (The Vanishing)

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18 Dissipatio Humani Generis ITCANALWAYSHAPPEN INDREAMS AND NIGHTMARES. THE FAMILIAR SCENEOF THE CITY THAT WEKNOWIS EMPTIEDOUT. THEDESERT ISNOLONGER ADISTANT PLACE, BUT APPEARS INOURMIDST, LIKE A SPECTER, TAKING THE PLACEOF THEUSUAL TRAFFICOFHUMANS ANDTHINGS. Massimo Recalcati

19 ROME SILENT BEAUTY Guido Morselli had told a story like this in Dissipatio H.G. (The Vanishing), where H.G. stands for humani generis. A visionary novel that begins with the protagonist’s decision to commit suicide by jumping into a lake lost in the middle of nowhere. But at the last minute he desists. When he returns to the city he notices, to his amazement, the almost complete disappearance of human beings. Everything is suddenly turned upside down: while his initial idea was the “anthrophobic” one of vanishing from the world, abandoning his fellow humans, he must now face the fact that it is the life of others that has disappeared, and consequently it is he who feels abandoned. The absence of others becomes his constant companion. Piazzas, avenues, restaurants, swimming pools, shopping malls, offices, stores, stadiums, theaters, cinemas: there is no human presence. The days of the lockdown were those of a temporary but no less alienating dissipatio humani generis like the one experienced by the main character in Morselli ’s novel. We are very familiar with the sense of emptiness that can arise caused by the sense of things being too full. Contemporary or postmodern loneliness is no longer triggered by the absence of the other, but rather by their cumbersome presence. It is no longer loneliness as the detachment from worldliness, from gossip, from the vanity of the world; rather, it is a loneliness that appears when we are next to others, submerged, packed, crowded, pressed up one against the other. It is the loneliness you can feel in the big city, in the subway, or in a shopping mall, in the ordinary traffic of any day while you are on your way to work during rush hour. It is the loneliness felt by the person who is engulfed in an anonymous mob. But in the days of the lockdown we experienced a new kind of emptiness and absence because the life of the masses had disintegrated into lots of monads. It was not the experience of the emptiness that we had been accustomed to, that arose from the crowds, from the clogged up spaces and the anonymous dimension of the masses. Another emptiness had appeared along with the sudden disappearance of the human species forced into the cloistered living of isolation. That disappearance revealed another facet of our landscapes. In particular, cities reappeared after the ebbing of the tide that had submerged them. For many art cities, normally invaded by crowds of tourists, it was a paradoxical liberation that coincided with the necessary imprisonment of humans. Created by the work of humans, the place of life together, communitas, polis, layers of historical memories, during the lockdown days the city was given back the mineral purity of its simple presence. What happened is the same as what takes place in every artistic creation: the artist can understand that his work is truly finished only when he can observe it as an extraneous presence. It may seem paradoxical but that’s the way it is: the artist’s hand had subtracted it from nothing and made it exist, but now that his hand withdraws, now that his job is done, before the author’s Ego the work appears as an irreducible power, it is other than itself, infinitely far from the person who generated it, independent. Only then can its beauty be fully appreciated.

21 ROME SILENT BEAUTY Didn’t what we lived through during the lockdown perhaps generate a similar effect of estrangement? At the time when the cities had emptied out and the forms appeared to be complete in their absolute presence, wasn’t it the city’s monuments, streets, piazzas that were looking at us? No noise, no sounds, no fireworks, no curious gazes, no chattering; nothing at all. The beauty of the city rediscovered its stone roots. For a whole springtime we lived the unimaginable experience of an emptying out and desertification of the city that can only happen in dreams or nightmares. Dissipatio H.G.: only traces of our passing remained. Yet, it is as if these traces told the story of a dead person. A city without human beings is indeed a lifeless city. And yet beauty is not completely excluded. On the contrary, perhaps it had found its purest and most ancestral form. We aren’t the ones looking at the city, rather, it’s the city looking at us. We are shut inside our homes, sheltered from the monster. But the city cannot be attacked, it cannot be infected. It emerges from the mortal wave of the pandemic like some extraordinary shipwreck. Now, finally, every trace of the past, every monument, but every site in the city as well, will have the care that it deserves. It will not be violated by the mindless incivility of mass tourism. Ultimately, we’ ll have absolute respect for the works that can only take the form of absolute silence. Unsurprisingly, Freud paired beauty with death. In both of these experiences something prevails over us, decentering our Ego. Both beauty and death bring with them an undecipherable mystery that we cannot be the masters of. We must retreat, take a step back. Let our traces survive us. Dissipatio H.G.: the city built by humans regains its formal mythology with the disappearance of humans. After all, the human being is not needed for its beauty. The same would indeed be true for death. It is the human being who dies each time, not death. Death’s indifference to humans, the superhuman indifference of beauty toward its beholder. I love the sunrise in my city because there is no one around. No human being to spoil the city’s landscape of absolute beauty. Just composed forms, traces, fragments, spaces, volumes. No psychology, no human measure, just the absolute beauty of the form that nourishes itself. We were excluded, distanced, from the landscape, left to watch the austere and heartbreaking spectacle of beauty still descend upon the streets, roads, piazzas that used to be ours. You can no longer touch the stones of the churches, just as you can no longer touch the water where the fish live. A glass box isolated us from the world in those days. We inhabited the enclosed spaces of our homes, excluded from the open space of the city. We were still a part of the city, but the city was outside of us, impossible either to touch or to inhabit. We watched the city change, suddenly reaquiring its absolute beauty. Were we, then, just the stain on the picture? The insolent presence of those who offend the silent perfection of great beauty? Didn’t we learn that we are not indispensable? Didn’t we learn that beauty, like death, goes beyond us? But what would a city be like without human beings? Doesn’t a city perhaps always speak of us, of what we were and what we are? And yet, when we look at the images in this book that describe a deserted Rome, we cannot help but think about our superfluousness. The stones, churches, monuments, piazzas, streets, roads that humans have used to build their cities are revealed to be independent of our actions. The lockdown separated the work from its author. And now it lies before us like a distant and unattainable presence. We are no longer the ones looking at it. It looks at us.

24 Rome. Belonging to All, and to No One THESE IMAGES ARE LIKE A JOURNEY. THEY ARE THECHRONOLOGYOF A PATHTHAT REPEATEDLY CROSSEDROMEDURING THE LOCKDOWN, REPRESENTINGACITY THATMAYHAVEBEEN DESERTED, SILENT, ANDMOTIONLESS, BUTWASNEITHERAS DESOLATENORAS SAD ASONEMIGHT EXPECT. Claudio Strinati Previous pages VIA DEI FORI IMPERIALI TOWARD PIAZZA VENEZIA

25 ROME SILENT BEAUTY In looking at these photographs, we rather have the same feeling we might experience before certain Metaphysical paintings by Giorgio de Chirico, which the great painter himself chose to call “Piazze d’Italia” (Italian Squares): visions of solemn quietness and the magical suspension of time, when the artist had the impression of seeing the world as he never had before, almost devoid of human presence. In these images made about one hundred years after de Chirico’s own experience, we seem to perceive the same state of mind as that of the Master, albeit weighed down by the fear of contracting a dangerous, invisible disease that has forced everyone to stay indoors. The photographer accepts the challenge and wanders around the empty city to record its solitude and apparent abandonment. Ultimately, the images do not really express a feeling of desolation, which was indeed at the basis of the creative impulse. On the contrary, those who see the photographs experience a feeling of supreme beauty and inner peace, almost as if the author had carried out a heroic act to free us from fear and restore our serenity. It is the gaze of the photographer who is the sole inhabitant of the city, represented with no human presence. The viewer does not see any sign of the cataclysm that has swept over the city of Rome, all of Italy, and the entire world, truly and seriously threatening people’s lives. The viewer sees the consequences of what actually took place. Gone is that throbbing, chaotic activity that constantly drives the lives of the people spread across an immense space, for the city of Rome is truly immense in its territorial expansion. And it is reasonable to think that there is room for everyone, even though there are very few crucial places where the everyday life of its residents is combined with the often uncontainable pressure of masses of tourists, responsible at times for effects that are not always positive for that civil cohabitation that even this city would find it easy to cultivate. The feeling that the Roman resident has before these photographs is that of a sort of reappropriation, above all when thinking of the time when the comings and goings of the city’s visitors was so great it was hard to see it for what it was, an incredible, stunning urban context, in some ways a unique one in the world. This uniqueness is movingly expressed in the photographs, addressed to both the expert in Roman history and traditions, and to the person who knows nothing of such things. In ancient times Rome was called “caput mundi” (the capital of the world) because it was at the top of an Empire that vied in terms of size and importance with the ancient empires of the Persians, the Chinese, the Ottomans, and emulated in its splendor and magnificence the legendary kingdoms of the Mayas and the Incas. But eventually and inevitably the Roman Empire fell apart, overwhelmed at first by the warring peoples from Northern Europe, and then by the unstoppable rise of Christianity and the papacy. Hence, over the course of the centuries, the city of Rome became a place where no one, ruler or subject, ever felt entitled to erase the signs of its previous history, as instead occurred in many other parts of the world over time.

26 The conquerors who came from the north did destroy an endless number of buildings, monuments, documents from the past, but they could not fail to show great admiration for what the Emperors, the Senate, and the Romans themselves had succeeded in doing. The result of this was that they repurposed at least as much as what they had torn down. The popes adopted a similar criterion. In the Renaissance, the architect Sebastiano Serlio wrote that: “Roma quanta fuit ipsa ruina docet” (the greatness of Rome can be seen in its ruins). And these ruins were restored, used, transformed, buried, and then unearthed, in an oscillation between the old and the new, the likes of which had never been seen before, in two thousand years and beyond, a clear prevalence of the one over the other. This is the rationale of the Eternal City, and it is the rationale behind the pictures in this book. Everywhere you go you can establish the exact era of the place you are crossing, visiting, or simply experiencing in the day-to-day. However, that place, our photographs tell us, albeit accurately dated, never exclusively belongs to the historical era in which it was planned, built, and adorned. The entire city, in fact, is one colossal palimpsest where different historical periods thrive together in the same place. Each of these periods left behind specific marks, visible in the streets, monuments, artworks, archaeological sites, human activities, meeting places, and spaces for social assembly. In countless cities around the world there are—clearly distinct—ancient areas destined to the visits of tourists, and modern areas where people live and work. That is not Rome. In the city of Rome, the ancient and the modern live together, they are present at the same time, and anyone who lives or travels there becomes aware of this, especially when seeing the huge historical district, identified by the “Rioni ” (neighborhoods) or the districts that were built between the late nineteenth and the early twentieth centuries, as though it were an open-air museum, even though the word “museum” is not to everyone’s liking. But what we can see in these photographs is rather different. Here, Rome is not an open-air museum; it is a place of profound historical meaning and supreme beauty, where everything speaks of lives lived even with respect to two thousand years ago and even longer. In these images we see how space and time are generated by a stratification that is immediately perceivable both in the day-to-day and in the cultural research. In these pictures the author’s gaze flows unhindered, there are no obstacles or disturbances. We see what history has passed down to us and what it reminds us of each and every day. This book thus becomes a full-fledged walk through the uninterrupted and endless flow of history. The fact that there are no people in the images does not arouse feelings of melancholy or sadness, and what we see is not a city of the dead. It is everyone and no one’s city: it is the city that its residents and its visitors could easily get to know if only they really stopped to look at it, understanding that it is truly designed for each one of us. And so we travel through landmarks like the Capitol, where secular power and religious power meet, for at the very top is the Basilica, at first Benedictine and later Franciscan, of Santa Maria in Ara Coeli. Close by is the new Rome born after the papacy’s defeat by the Savoy troops. Here is the Vittoriano, the monument built between the late nineteenth and the early twentieth centuries in honor of King Victor Emmanuel II, celebrating the unity of the country and the freedom of its citizens. In 1929 the Concordat resulted in the ultimate paradox, clearly shown in these pictures. That was when, inside the secular city, an independent State was born, surrounded by walls like in ancient times, and named the Vatican City.

27 ROME SILENT BEAUTY The photographer has immortalized this pivotal and significant event in images that speak volumes, which accompany us to Milvian Bridge, from which, with Constantine’s victory over Maxentius, Christianity became the state religion; to the “Bridge of Angels” leading to Castel Sant’Angelo, the bulwark of the Catholic church’s military defense for many centuries, a monument that had originally been built to house the Mausoleum of Emperor Hadrian, who died in 138 AD. Just a stone’s throw away from that celebrated monument, secular Rome finds its ideal space in the nineteenth-century Piazza del Popolo, a masterpiece of architecture and urban planning that these pictures describe both powerfully and inspiringly. The images also tell us about another crucial area of secular and civil nineteenth-century Rome, Piazza Campo de’ Fiori, with its wonderful statue of Giordano Bruno, which once caused bitter conflict between the City and the Papacy. Ancient Imperial Rome is still tangible in the Eternal City, although two thousand years have passed. These pictures remind us how in the first half of the twentieth century the cult of a return to Antiquity was underway, according to the very same criteria that de Chirico imagined for his painting at the dawning of the twentieth century. Worthy of note in this sense is the photographer’s crossing of the EUR, the neighborhood that was built to host the Universal Exposition of 1942, which was not held, however, as it coincided with the height of the hostilities of World War II. The images show us, in a new and unorthodox way, those places that were born, based on great architectural doctrine, surrounded by the immense propaganda campaigns of a fascist dictatorship, and that then sank into an equally immense silence after the fall of the regime, an early symptom of the rebirth, a difficult and tormented one, of the modern city. To understand this better, we need to look back over what the photographs suggest to us about nineteenth-century Rome, the demolition work that took place on Via Nazionale, which was built by drastically eliminating the great green spaces corresponding to the large aristocratic villas such as that of the Ludovisi, turned into building land after Italy’s Unification. This book can be read based on a comparison between the different eras. Particularly magnificent is the photographic documentation of the eighteenth-century city with Piazza del Quirinale, Palazzo della Consulta (now the seat of the Corte Costituzionale), the Trevi Fountain, witnesses to a memorable season in urban design. But no less important, and actually extolled by the pictures, is the seventeenth century, especially represented in the images of Piazza Navona. This was the fief of the papal Pamphilj family, and visible here are the splendors of Gian Lorenzo Bernini and the heroic architectural undertakings of Francesco Borromini, two of the greatest artists ever to have lived, whose differences characterized a new era. However, sixteenth-century Rome is highlighted as well, the one that created the most famous thoroughfares in the Eternal City, from Via Giulia (named after Pope Julius II), which leads to Piazza Farnese, to Via Sistina (after Pope Sixtus V), after a long stretch running all the way to the Lateran. The images cast light on the fifteenth-century city, when Rome was literally reborn with the return of the popes after their exile in Avignon. The greatness of Imperial Rome achieved new vigor. Palazzo Venezia and Palazzo della Cancelleria were conceived, the latter belonging to the Vatican City, and therefore lying in foreign territory. However, the most crucial moment is when the images take us to the world of the Roman Empire. Palatine Hill, Caelian Hill, the Imperial Fora, Via Appia which is the quintessence of the union between the modern city and the ancient one. At the height of this is the Colosseum and the Arch of Constantine, as well as the Pantheon, which is rather far from the Colosseum, and still represents the highest symbol of continuity in time, a monument that was conceived to be pagan and was later consecrated Christian. The ability to see everything without anyone being there allows the reader to perceive the breadth of history, the great beauty of the spaces and the monuments, the sense of decorum and profound spirituality that are expressed by even the remotest of corners, but lovingly rediscovered by this poignant series of photographs.

29 What’s left is, yes, bodily, but not organic. Scraps of litter on the streets, stubs of movie tickets, empty cigarette packets. There are other remains, too, organic and alive but not human. Guido Morselli, Dissipatio H.G. (The Vanishing)

ROME SILENT BEAUTY THE COLOSSEUM (ITS REAL NAME IS THE FLAVIAN AMPHITHEATRE) IS A SYMBOL OF ROME AND ITS ENDURANCE IN TIME. BUILT IN THE MANNER OF A STADIUM ATOP THE RUINS OF NERO’S PALACE, THE DOMUS AUREA, INAUGURATED IN THE YEAR 80 AD BY EMPEROR TITUS WITH CELEBRATIONS AND EVENTS THAT, ACCORDING TO LEGEND, LASTEDONE HUNDRED DAYS IN A ROW, FOR CENTURIES IT HOSTED GLADIATORIAL FIGHTS AND COUNTLESS TYPES OF SPECTACULAR BATTLES. BECAUSE IT HAS CONSTANTLY BEEN REPURPOSED, THE COLOSSEUMHAS STOOD THE TEST OF TIME SINCE THE MIDDLE AGES. THE FRANGIPANE FAMILY INSTALLED A FORTRESS THERE, WHICHWAS LATER DEMOLISHED. NEVERTHELESS, IT HAS UNDERGONE SEVERE DAMAGE DUE TO EARTHQUAKES AND THE CONSTANT LOOTING OF MATERIALS, WHICHWAS ESPECIALLY PERPETRATED DURING THE RENAISSANCE. IT IS ALMOST FIFTY METERS IN HEIGHT, ELLIPTICAL IN SHAPE, AND THE FACADE FEATURES A TRIPLE SERIES OF EIGHTY ARCHES. THE ONES ON THE GROUND ARE NUMBERED INORDER TOMANAGE THE ENTRANCE OF THE PUBLIC. THE VIA SACRA TOWARD THE ARCH OF TITUS Previous pages THE COLOSSEUM FROM THE VIA SACRA

THE COLOSSEUM AND THE ARCH OF CONSTANTINE

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Discover the multimedia content THE MONUMENTS

44 And yet the silence weighs on me, and I perceive it with a sense that isn’t auditory, but perhaps emotional, perhaps thoughtful and reasoning. What produces silence is its opposite, is finally the human presence, whether welcome or not, and its absence, there are no substitutes for those two factors. Guido Morselli, Dissipatio H.G. (The Vanishing)

46 THE ARCH OF TITUS

47 ROME SILENT BEAUTY THE ARCHOF TITUS PRESERVES THE MEMORY OF A TERRIBLE EVENT THAT TOOK PLACE IN ANCIENT TIMES: THE DESTRUCTION OF THE TEMPLE OF JERUSALEM BY THE EMPEROR TITUS. THE EVENT IS RECALLED IN THE TWOHUGE AND BADLY ERODED BAS-RELIEFS INSIDE THE SINGLE-FORNIX ARCH, WHERE THE IMAGE OF THE CARRYINGOFF OF THE CANDELABRUMWITH SEVEN ARMS AS PART OF THE SPOILS ESPECIALLY STANDS OUT. OVER THE CENTURIES, THE ARCHOF TITUS CAME CLOSE TO BECOMING A COLOSSAL RUIN, BUT IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY GIUSEPPE VALADIER BRILLIANTLY RESTORED IT, AND IT BECAME A MODEL FOR MANY LATER CONSERVATIONWORKS. VALADIER COMPLETED THE MISSING PARTS, WHILE RESPECTING THE ORIGINAL MATERIAL, TRAVERTINE, GIVING BACK TO THE MONUMENT THE IMPORTANCE IT DESERVES IN THE HISTORY OF ART. AWALK THROUGH THE ARCH LEADS INTO THE AREA OF THE IMPERIAL FORA AND DOWN THE ANCIENT VIA SACRA.

48 FARNESE GARDENS UPON THE PALATINE

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50 THE IMPERIAL FORA

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53 THE AREA THAT IS GENERALLY REFERRED TO TODAY AS THE FORI IMPERIALI, OR IMPERIAL FORA, WAS AT ONE TIME CALLED CAMPO VACCINO. IN THE SIXTEENTH AND SEVENTEENTH CENTURIES, ONE OF THE MAIN ACTIVITIES IN THIS AREA STREWN WITHMONUMENTS, MOST OF WHICH HAVE COLLAPSED AND ARE NOW IN A STATE OF RUIN, WAS LIVESTOCK REARING. LIFE IN THE COUNTRY INTERSECTEDWITH THAT OF THE CITY, AWAY OF LIVING THAT ENDURED FOR CENTURIES. ON THE OTHER HAND, MANY OF THE COLUMNS THAT CURRENTLY RISE UP IN THE GREAT SPACE OF THE FORAWERE BUILT DURING THE MODERN AGE. STILL STANDING IS THE ARCHOF SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS, EVEN THOUGH ITS BAS-RELIEF PANELS ARE LARGELY ERODED. AT THE HEIGHT OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY AND JUST A STONE’S THROWAWAY, PIETRO BERRETTINI DA CORTONA, ONE OF THE WORLD’S GREATEST ARCHITECTS AND PAINTERS, BUILT THE CHURCHOF SANTI LUCA E MARTINA IN SHAPES ECHOING THOSE OF ANTIQUITY, BUT REINTERPRETED IN A BAROQUE KEY. THE COLOSSEUM FROM THE IMPERIAL FORA

54 But now that they are playing hard to get, or are trying to, anyway, I’m beginning to reevaluate their importance. Guido Morselli, Dissipatio H.G. (The Vanishing)

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PIAZZA DEL CAMPIDOGLIO Previous pages CORDONATA CAPITOLINA TOWARD PIAZZA VENEZIA

59 ROME SILENT BEAUTY THE CAPITOL IS TRULY THE HEART OF ROME. LOCATED HERE IS THE SEAT OF THE CITY ADMINISTRATION, THE BASILICA OF SANTA MARIA IN ARA COELI, AND THE VITTORIANO, THE MUCH-DEBATED MONUMENT BUILT AFTER THE UNIFICATIONOF ITALY TOHONOR KING VICTOR EMMANUEL II. FOR IT TO BE CONSTRUCTED A WHOLE NEIGHBORHOODWAS DEMOLISHED, ANDMARVELOUS BUILDINGS LIKE THE TORRE DI PAOLO III AND PALAZZO TORLONIA WERE RAZED TO THE GROUND. THE STEPS LEADING UP TO THE ARA COELI RECALL THE MOVING LEGENDOF EMPEROR AUGUSTUS, WHO ASKED THE TIBURTINE SIBYL WHETHER HE TOO COULD BE REVERED LIKE GOD. THE SIBYL PREDICTED THAT THE ARRIVAL OF THE TRUE REDEEMER, JESUS CHRIST, WAS IMMINENT, WHEREUPON AUGUSTUS HAD AN ALTAR BUILT AT THE TOP OF THE CAPITOLINE HILL, AND NAMED IT ARA COELI, ALTAR OF HEAVEN.

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67 PIAZZA VENEZIA AND THE VITTORIANO

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70 PIAZZA DELLA MINERVA

71 ROME SILENT BEAUTY THE DOMINICAN CHURCHOF SANTA MARIA SOPRA MINERVA IS NAMED AFTER THE TEMPLE THAT WAS BELIEVED TO BE DEDICATED TO THE GODDESS MINERVA, UPONWHOSE RUINS THE CHURCHWAS BUILT IN THE LATE FOURTEENTH CENTURY. IT IS THE ONLY CHURCH IN ROME TOHAVE PARTIALLY PRESERVED ITS GOTHIC INTERIORS, WHICHWERE LATER CONSIDERABLY RESTORED IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. WHAT ESPECIALLY STANDS OUT IN THE SQUARE IS THE ELEPHANT WITH A SIXTH-CENTURY BC EGYPTIANOBELISK ON ITS BACK. IT IS A SCULPTURE OF ASTONISHING PROWESS AND BEAUTY, EXECUTED PERHAPS BY ERCOLE FERRATA TO A DRAWING BY GIAN LORENZO BERNINI IN 1667. AROUND THE BASE OF THE SCULPTURE A LATIN INSCRIPTION BOASTS OF THE ENDLESS KNOWLEDGE OF THE EGYPTIANS, WHICHWAS THEN ABSORBED BY THE ROMAN CIVILIZATION, REACHING ALL THEWAY TO THE BAROQUE AGEWHEN THE BABY ELEPHANT, REFERRED TO BY THE PEOPLE OF ROME TODAY AS “MINERVA’S CHICK,” WAS FINISHED AND POSITIONED.

72 Guido Morselli, Dissipatio H.G. (The Vanishing) The air is clear of smoke and fumes, the earth no longer stinks or quakes with terrible noises. (Humans, you want to fight pollution? Simple: eliminate the polluting breed.)

Previous pages PORTICO OF THE PANTHEON

77 THE PANTHEON AND PIAZZA DELLA ROTONDA

78 ROME SILENT BEAUTY THE PANTHEON (A GREEKWORD THAT MEANS “ALL THE GODS”) IS ROME’S MOST FAMOUS ANCIENT MONUMENT, WITH THE EXCEPTIONOF THE COLOSSEUM. BUILT IN 27 BC BY MARCUS VESPASIANUS AGRIPPA, SON-IN-LAWOF AUGUSTUS, IT WAS THEN REBUILT AS WE SEE IT TODAY EARLY IN THE SECOND CENTURY AD UNDER EMPEROR HADRIAN. IT IS ONE OF THE FEW BUILDINGS IN ANCIENT ROME TOHAVE REMAINED STANDING, AND IT ALSO PRESERVES SOME OF ITS ORIGINAL DECORATIONS. THIS IN SPITE OF THEWELL-KNOWN EVENT THAT TOOK PLACE IN 1628, WHEN POPE URBAN VIII BARBERINI HAD ALL THE ANCIENT BRONZE COVERING THE PORTICO BEAMS STRIPPED AWAY TOMAKE EIGHTY CANNONS FOR CASTEL SANT’ANGELO, AS WELL AS BERNINI’S BALDACHIN (CANOPY) OVER THE HIGH ALTAR OF SAINT PETER’S, RESULTING IN THE FAMOUS LATIN QUIP: “QUOD NON FECERUNT BARBARI FECERUNT BARBERINI” (WHAT THE BARBARIANS DID NOT DO, THE BARBERINI DID).

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80 PALAZZO MADAMA

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82 ROME SILENT BEAUTY

83 TREVI FOUNTAIN

84 ROME SILENT BEAUTY THE TREVI FOUNTAIN, WHICHWAS DESIGNED BY A GREAT, ALBEIT RATHER UNKNOWN, EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY ARTIST NAMED NICOLA SALVI, IS SAID TO BE ONE OF THE PREFERRED SITES TO VISIT IN THE CITY. IT IS A FOUNTAIN AND AT THE SAME TIME A PIAZZAWHERE THE VISITOR ARRIVES, SPEAKS, OBSERVES, PAUSES, AND THEN TOSSES IN A COIN FOR GOOD LUCK—AND A HAPPY LIFE THAT WILL BE LONG ENOUGH TO BE ABLE TO RETURN HERE IN THE FUTURE. THIS IS WHAT THE FAMOUS SONG ARRIVEDERCI ROMA (1954) BY RENATO RASCEL IS ABOUT, AND THIS IS ALSO UNDERSCORED BY THE TIMELESS SCENE IN FELLINI’S LA DOLCE VITA (1960). THAT IS THE MOMENT WHEN ANITA ECKBERGWADES INTO THE POOL AS THOUGH IT WERE A LAKE OR A BAPTISMAL FONT, TRANSFORMING ANOSTENTATIOUS AND PROFANE MOMENT INTO SACRED AND ENCHANTEDMEDITATION, A REVERIE FROMWHICH, ALAS, WE ARE SOON REAWAKENED.

85 TREVI FOUNTAIN

87 The world has never been so alive as it is since a certain breed of bipeds disappeared. It’s never been so clean, so sparkling, so good-humored. Guido Morselli, Dissipatio H.G. (The Vanishing)

88 PALAZZO DELLA CONSULTA AND PIAZZA DEL QUIRINALE QUIRINAL PALACEWAS BUILT ON THE HILL THAT WAS AT ONE TIME CALLEDMONTE CAVALLO. IT WAS THE POPES’ SUMMER RESIDENCE IN A PART OF THE CITY THAT WAS PARTICULARLY SALUBRIOUS. IT ASSUMED ITS PRESENT FORM IN THE EARLY SEVENTEENTH CENTURY, WHILE THE LONG BUILDINGON THE SIDEWAS BUILT IN THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY AND IS STILL TODAY REFERRED TO AS THE “MANICA LUNGA” (LONG SLEEVE). STANDING AT THE CENTER OF THE SQUARE ARE THE TWO COLOSSAL STATUES OF THE DIOSCURI CASTOR AND POLLUX (OR AT LEAST THAT IS WHOMOST OF THE EXPERTS SAY THEY ARE), WHICH COME FROM THE NEARBY BATHS OF CONSTANTINE. ALTHOUGH FOR CENTURIES BELIEVED TO BE THE GREEK ORIGINALS, THEY ARE ACTUALLY ROMAN COPIES FROM THE IMPERIAL AGE. PORTRAYED AS THEY PULL ON THE REINS OF THEIR HORSES, THEY GAVE THE SQUARE ITS FAMILIAR NAME OF MONTE CAVALLO. THE MAJESTIC PALAZZO DELLA CONSULTA DESIGNED BY FERDINANDO FUGA OVERLOOKS THE PIAZZA AS WELL.

89 ROME SILENT BEAUTY

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91 PIAZZA BARBERINI WITH THE TRITON FOUNTAIN

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93 PIAZZA BARBERINI

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95 ROME SILENT BEAUTY LARGO CARLO GOLDONI

96 ROME SILENT BEAUTY VIA CONDOTTI TOWARD TRINITÀ DEI MONTI

99 ROME SILENT BEAUTY VIA VENETO

100 ROME SILENT BEAUTY

101 PIAZZA DI SPAGNA AND TRINITÀ DEI MONTI

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ROME SILENT BEAUTY PIAZZA DI SPAGNA FROM TRINITÀ DEI MONTI Previous pages TRINITÀ DEI MONTI AND THE SPANISH STEPS Discover the multimedia contents THE SQUARES

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111 ARA PACIS MUSEUM AND LUNGOTEVERE IN AUGUSTA

112 One reaction that surprises me: a new mode of thinking about them, together, as a collectivity. An unexpected disposition to understand and feel for them. Sympathy, empathy. A shipwrecked human solidarity bobs up, a surprise last-ditch response. Guido Morselli, Dissipatio H.G. (The Vanishing)

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ROME SILENT BEAUTY Previous pages VIEW FROM THE PINCIO PIAZZA DEL POPOLO IS THE SUPREME SYMBOL OF SECULAR ROME. IT IS LOCATED IN THE NORTHERN PART OF THE CITY WHERE VIA FLAMINIA CONNECTS WITH PORTA DEL POPOLO. BY PASSING THROUGH THE GATE ONE ENTERS THE MAJESTIC OPENING DESIGNED BY GIUSEPPE VALADIER, FOLLOWING A LENGTHY POLITICAL, ARCHITECTURAL, AND TOWN PLANNING DEBATE INVOLVING NUMEROUS EXPERTS, ESPECIALLY FRENCH ONES. THIS SHOULD COME AS NO SURPRISE CONSIDERING THAT THE SQUARE ECHOES THE NAPOLEONIC AND REVOLUTIONARY SPIRIT. IT TOOK A LONG TIME TO COMPLETE, AND THEWORKWAS FINALLY FINISHED IN 1833–34. LEADING OUT FROM THE SQUARE ARE THE THREE STREETS IN BAROQUE ROME KNOWN AS THE TRIDENT: VIA DEL CORSO STRAIGHT THROUGH THE CENTER, VIA DEL BABUINO TOONE SIDE, VIA DI RIPETTA TO THE OTHER SIDE. TOMAKE IT EVENMORE WELL-DEFINED, THE FIFTEENTH-CENTURY CLOISTER OF THE CHURCHOF SANTA MARIA DEL POPOLO THAT WAS FELT TO BE IN THEWAY WAS DEMOLISHED.

117 PIAZZA DEL POPOLO FROM THE PINCIO TERRACE

ROME SILENT BEAUTY Previous pages PIAZZA DEL POPOLO VIADUCT OF CORSO FRANCIA

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122 PARCO DELLA MUSICA AUDITORIUM

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124 ROME SILENT BEAUTY THE MILVIAN BRIDGE IS THE GATEWAY TO CHRISTIANITY IN ROME. IT WAS HERE, ONOCTOBER 28 IN THE YEAR 312 AD, THAT EMPEROR CONSTANTINE FACED HIS RIVAL MAXENTIUS. LEGEND HAS IT THAT AN ANGEL APPEARED TO CONSTANTINE THE NIGHT BEFORE THE BATTLE, SHOWING HIM THE SYMBOL OF CHRIST’S CROSS THAT WOULD GUARANTEE HIS VICTORY IN THE NAME OF TRUE FAITH. AND INDEED, CONSTANTINEWON, ENTERING ROME, CROSSING THE FATEFUL BRIDGE, AND APPROACHING ALONG THE VIA FLAMINIA THAT OPENED UP BEFORE HIM, LEADING INTO TODAY’S PIAZZA DEL POPOLO. THE BRIDGE IS NO LONGER THE ONE THAT CONSTANTINE CROSSED. RESTORED SEVERAL TIMES OVER THE CENTURIES, TODAY WE SEE IT IN THE FORM IT WAS GIVEN IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY BY GIUSEPPE VALADIER, THE SAME ARCHITECT WHODESIGNED THE DEFINITIVE PLAN FOR PIAZZA DEL POPOLO.

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127 PONTE MILVIO

THE QUIET MAJESTY OF ROME’S CLASSICAL ARCHITECTURE OFTENMEETS AND CLASHES WITH THE LEGACY OF FUTURISM AND THE DYNAMISM OF THE DESIGN THAT IS RELATED TO IT. AND INDEED, JUST A STONE’S THROWAWAY FROM THE SOLEMN PROPYLAEA BUILT BY LUIGI CANINA BY THE YEAR 1830 AND LEADING US INSIDE VILLA BORGHESE, ONE OF THE CITY’S MOST PLEASANT AND WELCOMING SITES, ADVANCING TOWARD THE TIBER WE FIND THE DARING SHAPES OF PONTE FLAMINIO, PLANNED BY THE GREAT VISIONARY ARMANDO BRASINI IN THE DAYS OF THE EUR, BUT NEVER FINISHED. RIGHT NEXT TO IT ARE THE DOMES OF RENZO PIANO’S AUDITORIUM (COMPLETED IN 2003) REMINISCENT OF COLOSSAL ARMORED SCARABS WHOSE PURPOSE IT IS TO ABSORB THE MOTORIAL IMPETUS EMANATING FROM THOSE SPACES. NEARBY, WE CAN ALSOGLIMPSE THE BRIDGE OF MUSIC, INAUGURATED IN 2011 AND LATER DEDICATED TO ARMANDO TROVAJOLI. Discover the multimedia content THE STREETS

129 ROME SILENT BEAUTY PONTE DELLA MUSICA AND QUARTIERE FLAMINIO

132 PIAZZA MAZZINI

Following pages VIA DELLA CONCILIAZIONE

ST. PETER’S SQUARE

ST. PETER’S BASILICA FROM VIA DELLA CONCILIAZIONE

142 ROME SILENT BEAUTY ST. PETER’S BASILICA FROM VIA DELLA CONCILIAZIONE

148 ROME SILENT BEAUTY CASTEL SANT’ANGELO FROM PONTE SANT’ANGELO

Previous pages PONTE VITTORIO EMANUELE II AND CASTEL SANT’ANGELO

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151 ROME SILENT BEAUTY

Previous pages LUNGOTEVERE TOR DI NONA AND CASTEL SANT’ANGELO

153 CASTEL SANT’ANGELO FROM LUNGOTEVERE DEGLI ALTOVITI

154 Guido Morselli, Dissipatio H.G. (The Vanishing) If up until now there has been humanity, and now there is only me, then I must take on the activities that they have had to abandon.

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156 SUPREME COURT OF CASSATION

157 ROME SILENT BEAUTY

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160 ROME SILENT BEAUTY PIAZZA NAVONA, FOUNTAIN OF THE FOUR RIVERS PIAZZA NAVONA FOLLOWS THE SHAPE OF THE ANCIENT STADIUMOF DOMITIAN, WHERE ATHLETIC CONTESTS AND NAVAL BATTLES WERE HELD. DURING THE BAROQUE ERA THE PIAZZA BECAME THE FIEF OF THE PAMPHILJ FAMILY, WHO HAD A HUGE FAMILY PALAZZO BUILT THERE, ENGLOBING THE CHURCHOF SANT’AGNESE IN AGONE, MOST OF WHICHWAS THEWORK OF BORROMINI. POPE INNOCENT X PAMPHILJ HAD A FOUNTAIN BUILT IN THE MIDDLE OF THE SQUARE, SIGNIFYING THE CONSECRATIONOF PAPAL DOMINIONOVER THEWORLD. EVEN THOUGH HE HAD FALLENOUT OF FAVORWITH THE POPE, GIAN LORENZO BERNINI ALSO TOOK PART IN THE COMPETITION, PRESENTING A PROJECT SO BEAUTIFUL IT WAS UNEQUALED. ANOBELISK AT THE CENTER SEEMS TO BE SUSPENDEDOVER THE VOID, AND FOUR COLOSSAL STATUES REPRESENT THE FOUR PARTS OF THE KNOWNWORLD AT THE TIME. BERNINI AND BORROMINI, ETERNAL RIVALS, FACE TO FACE.

Previous pages PIAZZA NAVONA, FOUNTAIN OF THE MOOR

165 PIAZZA NAVONA

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167 ROME SILENT BEAUTY CORSO VITTORIO EMANUELE AND BASILICA OF SANT’ANDREA DELLA VALLE

168 ROME SILENT BEAUTY CORSO VITTORIO EMANUELE IS THE CONSEQUENCE OF A POLICY TO TEAR DOWN THE CITY’S ANCIENT NEIGHBORHOODS THAT WAS IMPLEMENTED IMMEDIATELY AFTER THE UNIFICATION OF ITALY, FROM THE DAYS OF THE BRECCIA DI PORTA PIA (STORMINGOF PORTA PIA) IN 1871, AND THE PROCLAMATION OF ROME AS THE ITALIAN CAPITAL. THE NEW SECULAR AND ANTI-CLERICAL GOVERNMENT BELIEVED THAT IT NEEDED TO RECLAIM THE ANCIENT CITY, WHICHWAS DEEMED TO BE UNHEALTHY, BY DEMOLISHING STREETS AND SMALL SQUARES, AS WELL AS CHURCHES AND BUILDINGS EVENWHEN THESEWERE OF NOTABLE HISTORICAL INTEREST. HENCE, A THOROUGHFARE WAS BUILT. BASEDON THE MODEL OF THE PARISIAN BOULEVARDS, IT RATIONALIZED THE SPACES AND AS A RESULT THE LIVES OF THE CITIZENS. OPENED UP ALONG THE ROUTEWAS PIAZZA CAMPODE’ FIORI, WHICHWAS CHOSEN TOHOST THE BRONZE STATUE OF THE MARTYR OF THE INQUISITION GIORDANO BRUNO. MADE BY ETTORE FERRARI, THEWORK CAUSED GREAT FRICTION BETWEEN THE PAPACY AND THE CIVIL ADMINISTRATION.

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171 PIAZZA CAMPO DE’ FIORI

172 ROME SILENT BEAUTY

173 PIAZZA FARNESE

174 PIAZZA TRILUSSA FROM PONTE SISTO

175 ROME SILENT BEAUTY

176 PONTE SISTO

177 ROME SILENT BEAUTY

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179 A minor problem remains, a benevolent problem. I wonder what I’ll do. Precisely in that banal sense of how I’ll occupy myself, how I’ll fill up my days. Guido Morselli, Dissipatio H.G. (The Vanishing)

Previous pages PONTE PALATINO, ISOLA TIBERINA, AND SYNAGOGUE

183 ROME SILENT BEAUTY THE GREAT SYNAGOGUE OF ROME FROM LUNGOTEVERE DE’ CENCI

184 THEATER OF MARCELLUS

185 ROME SILENT BEAUTY

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187 ARCH OF JANUS AND VIA DEI CERCHI

188 The more traumatic the stimulus, the more urgent and vital the need to adapt. Guido Morselli, Dissipatio H.G. (The Vanishing)

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190 ROME SILENT BEAUTY TEMPLE OF ERCOLE VINCITORE AND ARCH OF JANUS

Following pages PONTE PALATINO

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195 ROME SILENT BEAUTY VIA LUIGI PETROSELLI TOWARD SANTA MARIA IN COSMEDIN

196 SANTA MARIA IN COSMEDIN AND BOCCA DELLA VERITÀ THE BASILICA OF SANTA MARIA IN COSMEDIN GETS ITS NAME FROM THE GREEK “KOSMIDION,” MEANINGORNAMENT, PROBABLY REFERRING TO THE NUMEROUS EMBELLISHMENTS THAT POPE HADRIAN I HAD ADDED TO IT DURING THE RENOVATIONOF THE BUILDING IN THE EIGHTH CENTURY, ON THE BASE OF A PREVIOUS CHRISTIAN PLACE OF WORSHIP. THE BASILICAWAS FURTHER RENOVATED IN THE TWELFTH CENTURY. THE FRONT PORTICOHOUSES THE FAMOUS BOCCA DELLA VERITÀ (MOUTHOF TRUTH). SINCE ANCIENT TIMES IT HAS BEEN SAID TOHAVE SPECIAL POWERS, ITS JAWS SNAPPING SHUT OVER THE HANDOF ANYONEWHO TOLD A LIE. THIS EXPLAINS THE NAME OF THE SQUARE OPPOSITE THE CHURCH, WHICHWAS ORIGINALLY THE HEART OF THE FORUM BOARIUM, THE SITE OF THE CATTLE MARKET. IN THE SQUARE TOURISTS STAND IN LINE TO EXPERIENCE THE THRILL OF PUTTING THEIR HAND INSIDE THE MOUTHOF THE MASK. A LESS WELL-KNOWN FACT IS THAT THE CHURCH ALSO PRESERVES A GLASS RELIQUARY WITH THE SKULL OF SAINT VALENTINE, PATRON SAINT OF LOVERS.

ROME SILENT BEAUTY Following pages PORTA SAN PAOLO AND PYRAMID OF CAIUS CESTIUS

200 Guido Morselli, Dissipatio H.G. (The Vanishing) So I sit here on a bench along the boulevard, looking at the life that’s unfolding before my eyes in this strange eternity.

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203 THE CIRCUS MAXIMUS AND BATHS OF CARACALLA

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205 ROME SILENT BEAUTY PIAZZA SAN GIOVANNI IN LATERANO

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207 AURELIAN WALLS AND PIAZZA DI PORTA MAGGIORE

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209 AURELIAN WALLS AT PIAZZALE LABICANO

ROME SILENT BEAUTY PIAZZA DI PORTA MAGGIORE Following pages PIAZZA DEI CINQUECENTO AND TERMINI STATION

ROME SILENT BEAUTY PIAZZA DEI CINQUECENTO AND TERMINI STATION PIAZZA DI PORTA SAN LORENZO AND VIA DI SANTA BIBIANA Following pages VIA GIOLITTI AND TERMINI STATION

220 ALTHOUGH ROMANS OFTEN REFER TO IT AS PIAZZA ESEDRA, ITS OFFICIAL NAME IS PIAZZA DELLA REPUBBLICA. OVERLOOKING IT IS THE CHURCHOF SANTA MARIA DEGLI ANGELI, THE CITY’S CIVIC CHURCHWHERE LARGE CEREMONIES AND SACRED EVENTS OF PARTICULAR IMPORTANCE ARE HELD. THE PIAZZA’S EXEDRA SHAPE (THAT OF A SEMICIRCULAR RECESS) FOLLOWS THE ANCIENT ONE OF THE BATHS OF DIOCLETIAN, LOCATED BOTH ABOVE AND BELOWGROUND. THIS IS AN EXAMPLE OF HOW THE MODERN NINETEENTH-CENTURY CITY LITERALLY RESTED UPON THE LAYOUT OF THE ANCIENT MONUMENTS. THE SCULPTOR MARIO RUTELLI CHOSE THE MIDDLE OF THE PIAZZA FOR HIS FOUNTAINOF THE NAIADS, A SERIES OF BRONZE SCULPTURAL GROUPS THAT CAUSED SOMETHINGOF A SCANDAL WHEN THEY WERE UNVEILED IN 1901 BECAUSE OF THE OVERT SENSUALITY OF THE NUDES, AND BECAUSE THE MODELS USED FOR THEMWERE MEMBERS OF THE RICHEST ANDMOST ELEGANT SOCIETY IN THOSE DAYS. THE MATTERWAS EVEN DEBATED IN PARLIAMENT! THE ROMAN BELLE ÉPOQUE.

221 ROME SILENT BEAUTY PIAZZA DELLA REPUBBLICA

222

EUR LAKE AND PALACONGRESSI

VIA DEI FORI IMPERIALI WAS ORIGINALLY NAMED VIA DELL’IMPERO AT THE HEIGHT OF THE FASCIST ERA. THE IDEAWAS TO CONNECT PIAZZA VENEZIA TO THE COLOSSEUM, DEMOLISHING VELIA HILL, WHICHWAS SITUATED IN BETWEEN THEM, THEREBY JOINING THE CENTER OF ROMEWITH THE AREA SOUTHOF THE LATERAN. THE LATTER AREA HAD ALWAYS BEEN PERCEIVED AS REMOTE AND DISTANT, EVEN THOUGH IT WAS STILL LOCATEDWITHIN THE AURELIANWALLS. IT WAS THE APOTHEOSIS OF THE LIVING RESURRECTION OF ANTIQUITY, VISIBLEWHILE TRAVELING DOWN THE STREET BORDERED BY THE IMPERIAL FORA. FOR THE BRAND-NEW SETTLEMENT OF THE EUR, IN THE DIRECTIONOF THE SEA, THE ARCHITECTS DECIDED TO CREATE AN IDEAL CONTINUATION AS WELL. THE FULCRUM OF THE NEW PLANWAS THE OBELISK BY ARTURODAZZI DEDICATED TOGUGLIELMOMARCONI, THE LEONARDO DA VINCI OF THE MODERNWORLD, THE INVENTOR OF THE TELECOMMUNICATIONS THAT WE ALL RELY ON TODAY.

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MARCONI OBELISK AND VIEW TOWARD THE EUR LAKE Previous pages PIAZZALE DELLE NAZIONI UNITE AND VIALE CRISTOFORO COLOMBO

229 ROME SILENT BEAUTY EUR WITH THE SQUARE COLOSSEUM

232 ROME SILENT BEAUTY SQUARE COLOSSEUM WITH VIA DELLA CIVILTÀ DEL LAVORO

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234 ROME SILENT BEAUTY

235 VIALE CRISTOFORO COLOMBO TOWARD EUR

236 The truth of the matter is that there is a feeling, a rather vivid one, in our visit to the city, of living presences. Such are the statues we come across everywhere and that constantly offer us the perception of a latent life that is never interrupted. Claudio Strinati

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238 155 10 17 20 45 28 55 73 113 125 86 Augusto Rivalta, The Strength, 1910. The Vittoriano Paolo Naldini, Angel with Crown of Thorns, 1671. Ponte Sant’Angelo Francesco Baratta, The River-God Rio de la Plata, 1651. Fountain of the Four Rivers, Piazza Navona Giulio Monteverde, The Thought, 1910 The Vittoriano San Paolo, Paolo Romano, 1464. Ponte Sant’Angelo Giulio Monteverde, The Thought, 1910. The Vittoriano Giulio Monteverde, The Thought, 1910. The Vittoriano Gregorio Zappalà and Antonio della Bitta, Fountain of Neptune, 1878. Piazza Navona Gregorio Zappalà, Nereids with Cupids and Horses, Fountain of Neptune, 1878. Piazza Navona Gregorio Zappalà, Nereids with Cupids and Horses, Fountain of Neptune, 1878. Piazza Navona Piero Bracci, Triton, 1732–1751. Trevi Fountain Agostino Cornacchini, San Giovanni Nepomuceno, 1731. Ponte Milvio CAPTIONS

239 158 159 169 178 189 201 237 Gregorio Zappalà, Nereids with Cupids and Horses, Fountain of Neptune, 1878. Piazza Navona Gregorio Zappalà, Nereids with Cupids and Horses, Fountain of Neptune, 1878. Piazza Navona Gregorio Zappalà, Nereids with Cupids and Horses, Fountain of Neptune, 1878. Piazza Navona Federico Mochi, St. John the Baptist, 1633. Ponte Milvio Lorenzetto, San Pietro, 1534. Ponte Sant’Angelo Claude Poussin, The Ganges, 1651. Fountain of the Four Rivers, Piazza Navona Ercole Ferrata. Angel with Cross, 1667–1670. Ponte Sant’Angelo. Augusto Rivalta, The Strength, 1910. The Vittoriano

Project Coordination | Webuild Corporate Identity and Communication Department Art direction & graphic design | Laura Decaminada Augmented reality | View Too Video | Antonio Visceglia Translations | Sylvia Adrian Notini Photographs on pp. 12, 22–23, 30–53 are courtesy of Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali e per il Turismo - Parco archeologico del Colosseo Quotations on pages 16, 29, 44, 54, 72, 87, 113, 124, 154, 179, 188, 200 are taken from: Guido Morselli, Dissipatio H.G. (The Vanishing), Translated by Frederika Randall, New York Review Books, 2020, with permission of the publisher © 1977 Adelphi Edizioni S.p.A. Milano © 2022 Mondadori Libri S.p.A. Distributed in English throughout the World by Rizzoli International Publications Inc. 300 Park Avenue South New York, NY 10010, USA ISBN: 978-8-8918-3200-9 2023 2024 2025 2026 / 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 First edition: April 2023 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior consent of the publishers. This volume was printed at L.E.G.O. S.p.A., Vicenza Printed in Italy Visit us online: Facebook.com/RizzoliNewYork Twitter: @Rizzoli_Books Instagram.com/RizzoliBooks Pinterest.com/RizzoliBooks Youtube.com/user/RizzoliNY Issuu.com/Rizzoli

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