3900 – 2592 BC 2592 – 2118 BC Predynastic and Early Dynastic Period Old Kingdom First Intermediate Period Aswan Buhen Semna Kerma Khartoum 100 200 0 km White Nile Blue Nile Napata Mirgissa Uronarti Askut Abu Simbel A F R I CA 2118 – 1980 BC 1 st Cataract 2 nd Cataract 3 rd Cataract 4 th Cataract 5 th Cataract 6 th Cataract LOWER NUBIA UPPER NUBIA KUSH WAWAT Nubia under Egyptian rule Nubia was rich in minerals, timber and gold and was an important trade route to Africa and Arabia. Several Egyptian military expeditions to Nubia were undertaken during the 1 st and 2 nd Dynasties. Governor Herkhuf (6 th Dynasty 2305-2118 BC) led four expeditions to the south of Nubia. His explorations and the plentiful resources he brought back laid the foundations for the conquest of the Nubian territories in later periods.