102 PART I An aerial view of Nubian se!lements in Egypt in 1931, from an airship Zeppelin-Weltfahrten. the Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Switzerland, Yugoslavia, Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. In addition to Egypt and the Sudan, the Soviet Union, Ghana, and India also took part. Numerous archaeological campaigns were organized in Egypt and Sudan, divid- ing the Nubian territory into spheres of competence. The main objective was to under- take systematic excavations where there was real potential for discoveries, or to carry out surveys and graphic or photographic recording of extensive areas, most of which had never been explored before. Various missions, conducted from 1960 to 1968, were coor- dinated by the Documentation Center for the History of Art and Egyptian Civilization (CEDAE, Centre d’Étude et de Documentation sur l’Ancienne Egypte), a body founded in 1955 by the government of Egypt (known at that time as the United Arab Repub- lic) with the assistance of UNESCO, coordinated by the UNESCO advisor Christiane Desroches Noblecourt (1913-2011), a famous French Egyptologist. At the same time a protocol was drafted, which established the times and methods of intervention for the most important monuments. The ancient rock-cut temples, too precious to be allowed to disappear under water, had to be saved by moving them to a more suitable locations in areas situated on higher ground nearby. Several more minor antiquities were explored, recorded and studied in the field. The great fortresses of the Middle Kingdom, built mainly of unfired clay bricks, were inexorably lost as soon as the damwaters rose. For instance, the only surviving traces